Bennett, C., Hamilton, E. K., & Rochani, H. (2019). Exploring Race in Nursing: Teaching Nursing Students about Racial Inequality Using the Historical Lens. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. https://ojin.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-24-2019/No2-May-2019/Articles-Previous-Topics/Exploring-Race-in-Nursing.html
This article provides a case example of teaching about the history of race in nursing as a strategy for opening up the conversation about race in general. While focused on classroom teaching, the article includes the substantive content of the lecture and a perspective on the importance of understanding the historical context of race in nursing.
Considerations for Effective Mentorship across Gender/Race/Ethnicity from the Columbia University Mentoring Handbook:Columbia University Mentoring Handbook
This section of Columbia’s mentoring handbook provides a useful review of literature on the challenges faced by diverse faculty, including the following factors:
• Professional isolation, the experience of being the “lonely only” one of a particular
demographic group within their unit, with interactive challenges not experienced by senior
or majority peer faculty.
• Exclusion from spontaneous or informal collegial networks whether intentional or not
• Unintended bias on the part of colleagues, as well as students and trainees who may place
a lower value on scholarly contributions of women and URMs.
• Societal norms about acceptable behaviors (i.e. expectations regarding gendered behavior) which may be at variance with professional behaviors required for successful
• Cultural taxation, the overburdening with service of value to the institution, but not of
value for the career advancement of the faculty member.
• Biculturalism, the strain of being required to straddle or be fluent in more than one culture. This becomes particularly relevant when behaviors that are normative in one culture (i.e.
extreme modesty and humility) are at variance with behaviors expected for career success
within academic disciplines (i.e. self-promotion and outspokenness).
• Devaluation of scholarship focused on issues highly relevant to women or underrepresented minorities
Guides and Advice on Mentoring Students from Historically Underrepresented Groups. https://www.brown.edu/academics/gradschool/academics-research/graduate-advising-and-mentoring/advising-and-mentoring-graduate-programs/resource
Brown University has a robust site with a variety of resources primarily directed toward faculty mentoring students. However, many of the resources are applicable to mentoring faculty as well. In particular, this page on “Inclusive Mentoring” which offers tips on mentoring across differences with guidance for both the mentor and mentee: https://www.brown.edu/sheridan/teaching-learning-resources/inclusive-teaching/inclusive-mentoring
Guzman, F., Trevino, J., Lubuguin, F. & Aryan, B. (2010). Microaggressions and the pipeline for scholars of color. In D. W. Sue (Ed.), Microaggressions and Marginality: Manifestation, Dynamics, and Impact (pp.145-167). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
This chapter discusses the role of microaggressions in creating an “exclusive and unwelcoming campus environment” for faculty of color. The authors discuss specific examples of microinsults and microinvalidations that create barriers for scholars of color in the academic environment.
Hassouneh, D., Lutz, K. F., Beckett, A. K., Junkins, E. P., & Horton, L. L. (2014). The experiences of underrepresented minority faculty in schools of medicine. Medical education online, 19, 24768. https://doi.org/10.3402/meo.v19.24768
Strong support from leaders, mentors, and peers to nurture and protect faculty of color in schools of medicine is needed to counteract the negative effects of racism and to promote the positive effects this group has on diversity and excellence in medical education. Specific strategies for survival and success are described. (Quoted from abstract)
Mokel, M.J., Behnke, L.M., Gatewood, E. Mihaly, L. K., Newberry, E. B., Lovence, K., Ro, K., Bellflower, B. B., Tabi, M., & Kuster, A. (2021). Mentoring and support for underrepresented nursing faculty: an integrative research review. Nurse Education. doi: 10.1097/NNE.0000000000001089.
Nursing faculty members may need several mentors to succeed in scholarly productivity, career development, work-life balance, and socialization in the academy. Underrepresented (UR) faculty report additional challenges to success. This integrative review summarizes the literature (15 articles) on the best evidence-based practices for mentoring under-represented faculty. They conclude that successful mentorship programs include honest communication, including all stakeholders in forming a mentoring program, goals and activities that come from the mentees, and guaranteed resources. (Paraphrased from abstract)
Ortiz-Walters, R. & Gilson, L. L. (2005). Mentoring in academia: An examination of the experiences of proteges of color. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 67, 459–475, doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2004.09.004
This study examines the mentoring experiences of African, Hispanic, and Native-American proteges in an academic setting. Our results indicate that graduate students of color receive more psychosocial and instrumental support from, and are more satisfied with mentors of color. Further, interpersonal comfort and commitment mediate the relationships between surface and deep-level similarity and mentoring outcomes. (Quoted from abstract)
Osman, Y. & Gottlieb, B. (2018). Mentoring Across Differences. MedEdPortal. https://doi.org/10.15766/mep_2374-8265.10743
This article describes the Mentoring Across Difference mentor training program. It includes a number of appendices providing extensive resources including a resource list and case studies. This program also has an associated online resource with many of the same and additional materials; see https://bwhmentoringtoolkit.partners.org/
Phillips, J. M. & Malone, B. (2014). Increasing Racial/Ethnic Diversity in Nursing to Reduce Health Disparities and Achieve Health Equity. Public Health Reports, 129(Suppl 2): 45–50. doi: 10.1177/00333549141291S209
This article discusses increasing the diversity in nursing and its importance in reducing health disparities. The authors highlight characteristics of successful recruitment and retention efforts targeting racial/ethnic minority nurses and conclude with recommendations to strengthen the development and evaluation of their contributions to eliminating health disparities. (Quoted from the abstract)
Ro, K., Sin, M. K., & Villarreal, J. (2021). Perceptions of support by nursing faculty of color. Journal of professional nursing: official journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 37(1), 29–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2020.11.006
The purpose of this paper is to identify strategies for support being utilized by nursing faculty of color, and support systems that practicing faculty of color believe would aid their success in academia. The survey included 116 faculty of color from nursing academic institutions. Common themes included the importance of mentorship, faculty development, networking and acknowledgement. Respondents noted their experience with successful support systems and strategies and support systems they found to be lacking. Strategies were recommended for promoting faculty of color in schools and colleges of nursing. (Quoted from abstract)
Walters, K. L., Simoni, J. M., Evans-Campbell, T., Udell, W., Johnson-Jennings, M., Pearson, C. R., MacDonald, M. M. & Duran, B. (2016). Mentoring the Mentors of Underrepresented Racial/Ethnic Minorities Who are Conducting HIV Research: Beyond Cultural Competency. AIDS Behavior, 20(Suppl 2), 288–293. doi:10.1007/s10461-016-1491-x.
The majority of literature on mentoring focuses on mentee training needs, with significantly less guidance for the mentors. Diversity training tends to address the mentees’ cultural competency in conducting research with diverse populations and often neglects the training needs of mentors in working with diverse mentees. In this article, we critique the framing of diversity as the problem (rather than the lack of mentor consciousness and skills), highlight the need to extend mentor training beyond aspirations of cultural competency toward cultural humility and cultural safety, and consider challenges to effective mentoring of underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities (UREM), both for White and UREM mentors. (Quoted from abstract)
Zambrana, R. E., Ray, R., Espino, M. M., Castro, C., Cohen, B. D. & Eliason, J. (2015). ‘‘Don’t Leave Us Behind’’: The Importance of Mentoring for Underrepresented Minority Faculty.
American Educational Research Journal, 52(1), 40–72. doi: 10.3102/000283121456306 https://leadinginclusion2018.president.upenn.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/Mentoring-Minority-Faculty-Feb2015.pdf
This qualitative study describes the mentoring needs of URM faculty, including: valuing of research agenda, including community-based research/activities; sharing social capital; guiding negotiation of political minefields; providing affective support to overcome “imposter syndrome”; and more. The final recommendations focus primarily on institutional practices.